Program Topic: Protection and Communication
- W1-1 – Wednesday 09:40-10:40
- 09:40 – Integrated Simulation Model of Power System Protection Schemes and Process Bus Communication Networks
- 10:00 – Anti-Islanding Protection Relay for Medium Voltage Feeder with Distributed Generator
- 10:20 – RF Characterization of Substations: Parameters for Impulsive Noise Models Based on the Equipment Voltage
- W2-1 – Wednesday 11:00-12:20
- 11:00 – A High-Speed Digital Current Differential Protection Algorithm for Power Transmission Lines in Smart Grids
- 11:20 – A Control Technique for Operation of Single-Phase Converters in Stand-alone Operating Mode
- 11:40 – Impact of IEC 61850 GOOSE Communication Quality on Decentralized Reactive Power Control in Smart Distribution Grids – a Co-simulation Study
- 12:00 – Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relays Using Hybrid BBO/DE Algorithm and Considering Double Primary Relays Strategy
W1-1 – Wednesday 09:40-10:40
09:40 Integrated Simulation Model of Power System Protection Schemes and Process Bus Communication Networks
An integrated simulation model of power system protection schemes and IEC 61850 process bus communication models was developed for the design of substation automation systems of the future. The model is capable of reproducing a sequence of the relevant events and equipment states under different operation scenarios, including normal operation and power system fault disturbances. The model includes a description of the power system, the protection scheme, including its several IEDs, and the process bus communication network. The model allows an assessment of the functional correctness of steady-state operation of the protection scheme as well as during a power system fault clearance process. It also allows the performance evaluation of the underlying communication network. The capabilities of the model are illustrated with an example scenario of power system fault followed by circuit breaker failure.
10:00 Anti-Islanding Protection Relay for Medium Voltage Feeder with Distributed Generator
Large distributed generators such as solar farms and wind farms are usually connected to medium voltage feeders. The anti-islanding protection for medium-voltage (typically up to 50 kV) DG relies on the transfer trip from transformer station. This paper presents a local anti-islanding protection relay as a backup for transfer trip in case of failures. The anti-islanding detection scheme is to short the phase or line voltage at the point of common coupling when voltage crossing zero, and then detects the current in thyristor to determine the operating mode of the DG units. This proposed scheme has been evaluated using analytical, simulation and experimental test. The results show that the proposed scheme features high performance, low cost and high neutrality. It has the ability to protect against islands operation of DG units.
10:20 RF Characterization of Substations: Parameters for Impulsive Noise Models Based on the Equipment Voltage
Installing wireless Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for Substation Automation (SA) requires a thorough study of the electromagnetic radiations coming from the power equipment. In our previous work, we have performed a measurement campaign within several substations working under different voltages and we have recorded around 120 sequences of impulsive noise samples in the 700 MHz – 2.5 GHz band. In this paper, we present a method to classify substation impulsive noise in order to characterize a representative Radio Frequency (RF) environment of substations for specific substation voltages. The main contribution of this work is to provide representative impulsive noise characteristics in order to calculate parameters for impulsive noise models and to improve the characterization of substation RF noise. To reach this objective, we classify impulsive noise characteristics, such as the impulse amplitude, the impulse duration and the repetition rate for substations under 25 kv, 230 kV, 315 kV and 735 kV. By using the impulsive noise characteristics, we estimate representative parameters for two impulsive noise models: the Middleton class-A (MCA) and the Bernoulli-Gaussian with memory (BGM).
W2-1 – Wednesday 11:00-12:20
11:00 A High-Speed Digital Current Differential Protection Algorithm for Power Transmission Lines in Smart Grids
The objective of this paper is to propose and investigate a novel hybrid technique consisting of wavelet packet transform (WPT) and direct and quadrature (dq) axis components for current differential protection of transmission lines. The idea in this paper is to develop and implement this hybrid technique by localizing the frequency sub-bands of dq axis components of the differential currents using the WPT in order to find out and evaluate the best signature of the internal faults. The results show that the high-frequency sub-band provides the best signature and enough information to detect any fault in the transmission lines. This hybrid technique provides good accuracy and fast fault clearance speed with minimum level of WPT of the dq components of the differential current. Off-line results of the collected data from a laboratory experimental setup are provided in this paper for different faults at different locations on the transmission line.
11:20 A Control Technique for Operation of Single-Phase Converters in Stand-alone Operating Mode
A droop-Lyapunov based control technique using direct-quadrature (d-q) rotating frame dynamic model is presented in this paper for the frequency and voltage magnitude regulation of a stand-alone single-phase voltage-source inverter (SPVSI). Steady-state and dynamic performance of the controller are analyzed based on the d-q frame model and direct Lyapunov method respectively to satisfy control aims and system stability as operation criteria. To further clarify the operation area of the inverter, positive and negative maximum values for d-q components of inverter current are acquired by introducing a capability curve (CC) for entire operating condition. The performance of the proposed control technique is evaluated numerically in the MATLAB/Simulink environment. The simulation results validate the capability of the proposed control method in both steady-state and transient responses.
11:40 Impact of IEC 61850 GOOSE Communication Quality on Decentralized Reactive Power Control in Smart Distribution Grids – a Co-simulation Study
Smart grids are expected to increase efficiency, reliability and sustainability of future energy usage. Employing state-of-the-art information and communication technologies, within power grids, is defining for smart grids; therefore interaction between energy grids and communication networks requires thorough study. Combined simulation of the behaviour of the electrical and communication network would allow to analyse their influences on one each other.
In this paper, the results of a MATLAB®/Simulink® co-simulation of an electrical distribution grid containing two renewable sources in interaction with its communication network are presented. Communication between different nodes is based on the IEC 61850 GOOSE protocol, whose simulation model incorporates its different efficiency and reliability features. Communication network and electrical grid are modelled using SimEvents® blocks and SimPowerSystems® blocks, respectively. The effect of perturbations on the reliability of the data transfer links, while information to perform decentralised reactive power control is flowing on them, is examined.
12:00 Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relays Using Hybrid BBO/DE Algorithm and Considering Double Primary Relays Strategy
Finding optimal settings of directional overcurrent relays (DOCRs) has been extensively solved by many scenarios with adopting different traditional and modern optimization algorithms. For sake of simplicity, all conducted studies in the literature are restricted on a condition that all DOCRs are numerical, static, or electromechanical. There is a fact that when jumping from electromechanical or static relays to numerical relays the former devices could be used as a second wall of protection instead of just throwing them. With a very extreme condition, which may not happen in the real-world applications, all buses will have double primary DOCRs, which where act as backup DOCRs for other buses. That is, the dimension of any given problem is duplicated and becomes very hard to be feasibly and optimally solved. This paper covers this uncommon scenario, and a new hybrid algorithm with some additional sub-algorithms is developed to solve the IEEE 6-bus test system. Moreover, both numerical with electromechanical DOCRs or numerical with static DOCRs are considered in this study.