Program: 1st Session on Wednesday (09:40-10:40)

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W1-1Protection and Communication

09:40 Integrated Simulation Model of Power System Protection Schemes and Process Bus Communication Networks

André Santos (R&D NESTER, Portugal); Bruno Soares (R&D NESTER, Portugal); Fan Chen (R&D NESTER, P.R. China); Berend Kuipers (INOV, Portugal); Sérgio Sabino (INOV, Portugal); António Grilo (INESC-ID & INOV, Portugal); Paulo Pereira (INESC-ID & INOV, Portugal); Mario Nunes (INESC-ID & INOV, Portugal); Augusto Casaca (INESC-ID & INOV, Portugal)

An integrated simulation model of power system protection schemes and IEC 61850 process bus communication models was developed for the design of substation automation systems of the future. The model is capable of reproducing a sequence of the relevant events and equipment states under different operation scenarios, including normal operation and power system fault disturbances. The model includes a description of the power system, the protection scheme, including its several IEDs, and the process bus communication network. The model allows an assessment of the functional correctness of steady-state operation of the protection scheme as well as during a power system fault clearance process. It also allows the performance evaluation of the underlying communication network. The capabilities of the model are illustrated with an example scenario of power system fault followed by circuit breaker failure.

10:00 Anti-Islanding Protection Relay for Medium Voltage Feeder with Distributed Generator

Huafeng Xiao (Southeast University, P.R. China); Zhijian Fang (Huazhong University of Science and Technology, P.R. China); Chushan Li (Ryerson University, Canada); Dewei Xu (Ryerson University, Canada); Bala Venkatesh (Ryerson University, Canada); Bob Singh (Ryerson University, Canada)

Large distributed generators such as solar farms and wind farms are usually connected to medium voltage feeders. The anti-islanding protection for medium-voltage (typically up to 50 kV) DG relies on the transfer trip from transformer station. This paper presents a local anti-islanding protection relay as a backup for transfer trip in case of failures. The anti-islanding detection scheme is to short the phase or line voltage at the point of common coupling when voltage crossing zero, and then detects the current in thyristor to determine the operating mode of the DG units. This proposed scheme has been evaluated using analytical, simulation and experimental test. The results show that the proposed scheme features high performance, low cost and high neutrality. It has the ability to protect against islands operation of DG units.

10:20 RF Characterization of Substations: Parameters for Impulsive Noise Models Based on the Equipment Voltage

Fabien Sacuto (McGill University & Hydro-Québec, Canada); Fabrice Labeau (McGill University, Canada); Basile Landaabalo Agba (Institut de Recherche d’Hydro-Québec & École de technologie superieure, Canada)

Installing wireless Intelligent Electronic Devices (IED) for Substation Automation (SA) requires a thorough study of the electromagnetic radiations coming from the power equipment. In our previous work, we have performed a measurement campaign within several substations working under different voltages and we have recorded around 120 sequences of impulsive noise samples in the 700 MHz – 2.5 GHz band. In this paper, we present a method to classify substation impulsive noise in order to characterize a representative Radio Frequency (RF) environment of substations for specific substation voltages. The main contribution of this work is to provide representative impulsive noise characteristics in order to calculate parameters for impulsive noise models and to improve the characterization of substation RF noise. To reach this objective, we classify impulsive noise characteristics, such as the impulse amplitude, the impulse duration and the repetition rate for substations under 25 kv, 230 kV, 315 kV and 735 kV. By using the impulsive noise characteristics, we estimate representative parameters for two impulsive noise models: the Middleton class-A (MCA) and the Bernoulli-Gaussian with memory (BGM).

W1-2Micro-Grid – Stability & Optimization

09:40 Robust MPC-Based Optimal Sizing and Energy Management of a Hybrid Source for Remote Communities

Mohamed Taha (University of Alberta, Canada); Yasser Mohamed (University of Alberta, Canada)

In this paper, robust optimal sizing and energy management of a hybrid energy source for remote communities, based on the model predictive control (MPC) approach, is proposed. The proposed optimal sizing approach considers both the hourly and seasonal uncertainties (the wind speed and solar irradiation) associated with the renewable energy resources, as well as the load power forecast uncertainty. Moreover, the demand-side management is also taken into account by including the deferrable loads in the design problem. The robust optimization problem is formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem in order to achieve three objectives: (1) to minimize the total system cost (including the investment cost, operation and maintenance cost); (2) to minimize the total dump energy; and (3) to minimize the pollutant gas emissions from the diesel generator (DG) unit. The optimal planning decisions are determined by solving the optimization problem for the worst-case uncertain conditions. Numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach. Further, sensitivity analysis of the planning results with different levels of uncertainty is carried out.

10:00 Robust MPC-Based Energy Management System of a Hybrid Energy Source for Remote Communities

Mohamed Taha (University of Alberta, Canada); Yasser Mohamed (University of Alberta, Canada)

In this paper, a robust energy management system (EMS) of a hybrid energy source for a remote community is proposed. The proposed EMS is based on the model predictive control (MPC) approach. The hybrid energy source consists of dispatchable; nondispatchable; and battery storage, which can work in both grid-connected and isolated modes. Moreover, the demand-side management is considered by the inclusion of deferrable and dump loads in the optimization problem. The uncertainties associated with renewable energy sources such as the wind speed and the solar irradiation as well as the demand power are taken into account. The optimization problem was formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear (MINL) programming framework with three objectives: (1) to minimize the total operating cost, (2) to minimize the pollutant gas emissions, and (3) to minimize the dump energy, especially in the isolated mode. The battery daily number of cycles (DNC), the minimum state of charge (SOC), and the initial SOC are considered as decision variables in the optimization problem which are optimally determined by the EMS to minimize the total system operating cost while considering all the practical performance and side constraints of the different energy sources. Four different case studies are considered to verify the proposed EMS system. The results show that the values of the optimal DNC, the minimum SOC, and the initial SOC of the BS, which depend on the pool price variation, have a significant effect on the total operation cost.

10:20 Real-Time Implementation & Evaluation of Grid-Connected Microgrid Energy Management System

Carlos Rangel (McGill University, Canada); Diego Mascarella (McGill University, Canada); Geza Joos (McGill University, Canada)

This paper proposes the real-time implementation of an energy management system (EMS) optimization sequence and enumerates a set of performance metrics for grid-connected microgrids. The operation and performance of the proposed microgrid EMS is validated using a real-time hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing platform. The test system emulates the microgrid network, the distributed energy resources (DER) and their corresponding local controllers on a real-time-digital-simulator (RTDS). The microgrid EMS script under evaluation runs on a desktop computer and interfaces the RTDS through a separate digital controller. Real-time simulation results are used to quantify the performance of a grid-connected microgrid EMS in terms of power import constraints, the levelized cost of energy and fuel consumption provided by the DER scheduling algorithms. A utility 25 kV distribution test-line featuring a Type-4 wind turbine generator (WTG), battery energy storage system (BESS), diesel generator and controllable loads has been used for the benchmark test system.